Pentad summary: 2410_3120 (QDGC: 2431AB)
Show pentad and surrounding pentads (3x3 grid)

Cards for this pentad/group
Full protocol 75
Adhoc protocol 19
Incidentals 4519
Cards by month
  JFMAMJJASOND
C 9712623757467
S 219 193 214 180 126 118 153 164 162 145 174 183
Monthly card submissions.
  Start Date Name Spp
f2019-02-19Swiel, Simone69
a2019-02-171
f2019-02-02Wilkens, Victor152
f2019-01-12Wilkens, Victor167
f2019-01-04Liebenberg, Erna52
f2018-12-30Liebenberg, Erna28
f2018-11-17Wilkens, Victor114
f2018-10-25Wilkens, Victor115
f2018-09-21Wilkens, Victor135
f2018-08-10Wilkens, Victor121
f2018-06-02Wilkens, Victor98
f2018-04-27Wilkens, Victor116
f2018-03-12McKenzie, Duncan86
f2018-03-08Wilkens, Victor144
f2018-01-05Wilkens, Victor164
a2017-12-16Janse van Vuuren, Johan3
a2017-12-11Janse van Vuuren, Johan7
f2017-12-01Wilkens, Victor153
a2017-11-12Schafer, Lelanie46
f2017-09-23Madden, Bernard John71
f2017-09-18Botha, Dirk34
f2017-09-07Steenhuisen, Frank27
f2017-08-25Wilkens, Victor92
f2017-07-31Wilkens, Victor83
f2017-07-15Wilkens, Victor60
a2017-07-07Arthur, Brad8
f2017-07-07Arthur, Brad81
f2017-07-01Wilkens, Victor68
a2017-06-17Hagens, Marga2
f2017-05-01Wilkens, Victor86
f2017-04-26Wilkens, Victor117
f2017-04-14Wilkens, Victor121
f2017-04-10Steenhuisen, Frank45
a2017-03-31Steenhuisen, Frank9
f2017-03-26Steenhuisen, Frank60
f2017-03-25Wilkens, Victor131
a2017-03-21Steenhuisen, Frank76
f2017-02-19Steenhuisen, Frank41
f2017-02-07McKenzie, Duncan84
f2017-02-06Steenhuisen, Frank46
f2017-01-29Steenhuisen, Frank50
f2017-01-23Steenhuisen, Frank36
a2017-01-22Hatton, Alan24
f2017-01-19Wilkens, Victor147
f2017-01-03Steenhuisen, Frank55
f2016-12-27Wilkens, Victor102
f2016-12-24Steenhuisen, Frank27
f2016-12-22Wilkens, Victor129
f2016-12-19Steenhuisen, Frank53
a2016-12-02Eksteen, Ehren14
f2016-11-09Wilkens, Victor100
f2016-11-0252
f2016-10-28Wilkens, Victor89
f2016-09-23Wilkens, Victor98
f2016-09-13Wilkens, Victor89
f2016-09-08Wilkens, Victor116
f2016-08-05Wilkens, Victor106
f2016-06-18Wilkens, Victor82
f2016-03-28Wilkens, Victor67
f2016-03-23Wilkens, Victor118
f2016-03-18Wilkens, Victor117
f2016-03-08Wilkens, Victor85
a2016-02-11Bosch, Almero 4
f2016-02-10Wilkens, Victor128
a2016-02-03Zacharias, Michael Paul9
f2016-01-27Wilkens, Victor142
f2016-01-19Hatton, Alan39
f2015-11-29Wilkens, Victor142
f2015-11-24Carstens, Cassie37
f2015-10-02Wilkens, Victor99
f2015-08-30Wilkens, Victor106
f2015-07-11Niemandt, Jan59
f2015-07-09Wilkens, Victor86
f2015-07-04Wilkens, Victor93
f2015-06-14Wilkens, Victor51
a2015-06-13de Wet, Sandrie31
a2015-04-30Wilkens, Victor1
f2015-04-28Wilkens, Victor102
f2015-04-02Wilkens, Victor83
f2015-03-25Carstens, Cassie25
f2015-03-16Carstens, Cassie60
f2015-02-28Wilkens, Victor83
a2015-02-15Wilkens, Victor1
a2014-12-22Wilkens, Victor1
f2014-11-09Schafer, Lelanie57
f2014-10-15Carstens, Cassie27
a2014-10-06Wilkens, Victor1
f2014-03-10Carstens, Cassie50
a2014-02-02Wilkens, Victor1
a2013-07-11Lund, Angela2
f2011-08-02Drowley, John71
f2010-12-18Pretorius, Pieter Cilliers89
f2009-05-21Perrins, Niall102
f2009-03-31Pretorius, Pieter Cilliers74

  Ref Species name Afrikaans Taxonomic name Full protocol Adhoc protocol Incidentals SABAP1
        Rep Rate (%) n Latest Rep Rate (%) n Latest Reports Latest  
1625Apalis, Yellow-breastedGeelborskleinjantjieApalis flavida66.67502019-02-195.2612017-03-21362018-08-14✔ 33.17
2533Babbler, Arrow-markedPylvlekkatlagterTurdoides jardineii78.67592019-02-0221.0542017-11-12412018-08-14✔ 95.98
3432Barbet, Acacia PiedBonthoutkapperTricholaema leucomelas37.33282019-01-125.2612017-03-21202018-08-05✔ 24.62
4431Barbet, Black-collaredRooikophoutkapperLybius torquatus16.00122019-01-12   92018-08-14✔ 52.26
5439Barbet, CrestedKuifkophoutkapperTrachyphonus vaillantii85.33642019-02-1910.5322017-11-12412018-08-14✔ 89.45
6151Bateleur, BateleurBerghaanTerathopius ecaudatus64.00482019-02-1910.5322017-03-21332018-08-14✔ 84.92
7673Batis, ChinspotWitliesbosbontrokkieBatis molitor77.33582019-02-1910.5322017-03-21372018-08-14✔ 71.36
8404Bee-eater, EuropeanEuropese ByvreterMerops apiaster49.33372019-02-1915.7932017-11-12262018-03-16✔ 38.19
9410Bee-eater, LittleKleinbyvreterMerops pusillus54.67412019-02-025.2612017-03-21282018-08-14✔ 59.80
10407Bee-eater, Southern CarmineRooiborsbyvreterMerops nubicoides21.33162019-02-025.2612017-03-21152018-03-16✔ 23.62
11409Bee-eater, White-frontedRooikeelbyvreterMerops bullockoides   10.5322017-01-2222017-02-14✔ 6.03
12808Bishop, Southern RedRooivinkEuplectes orix2.6722019-02-02   12018-08-14✔ 4.02
1366Bittern, DwarfDwergrietreierIxobrychus sturmii4.0032018-01-05   22018-01-17✘ 0.00
1467Bittern, LittleKleinrietreier (Woudapie)Ixobrychus minutus6.6752018-01-05   52018-01-17✔ 0.50
15709Boubou, SouthernSuidelike WaterfiskaalLaniarius ferrugineus4.0032019-02-02   12017-05-13✔ 23.12
16731Brubru, BrubruBontroklaksmanNilaus afer65.33492019-02-1910.5322017-11-12352018-08-14✔ 40.70
17779Buffalo-weaver, Red-billedBuffelwewerBubalornis niger84.00632019-02-1921.0542017-11-12462018-08-14✔ 71.86
18545Bulbul, Dark-cappedSwartoogtiptolPycnonotus tricolor68.00512019-02-0210.5322017-03-31372018-08-14✔ 83.92
19872Bunting, Cinnamon-breastedKlipstreepkoppieEmberiza tahapisi42.67322019-02-0210.5322017-03-21242018-08-14✔ 15.08
20874Bunting, Golden-breastedRooirugstreepkoppieEmberiza flaviventris38.67292018-10-2510.5322017-03-21262018-08-14✔ 58.29
21721Bush-shrike, GorgeousKonkoitTelophorus quadricolor        ✔ 2.51
22723Bush-shrike, Grey-headedSpookvoelMalaconotus blanchoti56.00422019-02-1910.5322017-11-12282018-08-14✔ 68.34
23719Bush-shrike, Orange-breastedOranjeborsboslaksmanTelophorus sulfureopectus72.00542019-02-1915.7932017-11-12362018-08-14✔ 46.23
24227Bustard, Black-belliedLangbeenkorhaanLissotis melanogaster        ✔ 0.50
25217Bustard, KoriGompouArdeotis kori4.0032019-01-12   12016-03-30✔ 1.51
26196Buttonquail, KurrichaneBosveldkwarteltjieTurnix sylvaticus6.6752017-07-31   42017-09-15✔ 4.52
27144Buzzard, LizardAkkedisvalkKaupifalco monogrammicus1.3312017-07-07   12018-08-05✔ 7.04
28154Buzzard, SteppeBruinjakkalsvoelButeo vulpinus12.0092019-02-02   52018-01-17✔ 1.01
29627Camaroptera, Green-backedGroenrugkwekwevoelCamaroptera brachyura53.33402019-02-195.2612015-06-13302018-08-05✔ 7.04
30628Camaroptera, Grey-backedGrysrugkwekwevoelCamaroptera brevicaudata        ✔ 7.04
31859Canary, Yellow-frontedGeeloogkanarieCrithagra mozambicus49.33372019-01-1210.5322017-03-21282018-08-14✔ 42.71
32574Chat, Arnot'sBontpiekMyrmecocichla arnoti        ✔ 0.50
33570Chat, FamiliarGewone SpekvreterCercomela familiaris        ✔ 0.50
34648Cisticola, LazyLuitinktinkieCisticola aberrans        ✔ 0.50
35642Cisticola, RattlingBosveldtinktinkieCisticola chiniana72.00542019-02-1915.7932017-11-12382018-08-14✔ 34.67
36644Cisticola, Red-facedRooiwangtinktinkieCisticola erythrops   5.2612015-04-3012016-08-25✔ 7.04
37629Cisticola, ZittingLanderyklopkloppieCisticola juncidis5.3342018-04-27   32018-05-14✔ 2.01
38573Cliff-chat, MockingDassievoelThamnolaea cinnamomeiventris5.3342018-09-21   32018-06-22✔ 1.51
39212Coot, Red-knobbedBleshoenderFulica cristata2.6722019-01-12   12017-03-31✔ 0.50
4050Cormorant, ReedRietduikerPhalacrocorax africanus6.6752017-12-01   42018-08-05✔ 5.03
4147Cormorant, White-breastedWitborsduikerPhalacrocorax carbo8.0062019-02-02     ✔ 1.01
424131Coucal, Burchell'sGewone VleiloerieCentropus burchellii50.67382019-02-195.2612017-03-21222018-08-14✔ 71.86
431036Coucal, White-browedGestreepte VleiloerieCentropus superciliosus        ✔ 71.86
44280Courser, Bronze-wingedBronsvlerkdrawwertjieRhinoptilus chalcopterus18.67142019-02-19   72018-05-14✔ 22.11
45277Courser, Temminck'sTrekdrawwertjieCursorius temminckii24.00182019-02-02   132018-05-14✔ 8.54
46199Crake, AfricanAfrikaanse RiethaanCrecopsis egregia1.3312016-12-27   12017-01-04✘ 0.00
47203Crake, BlackSwartriethaanAmaurornis flavirostris41.33312019-02-02   242018-08-14✔ 3.52
48621Crombec, Long-billedBosveldstompstertSylvietta rufescens77.33582019-02-1915.7932017-11-12382018-08-14✔ 56.78
49522Crow, PiedWitborskraaiCorvus albus1.3312016-09-13   12016-09-15✔ 4.02
50341Cuckoo, AfricanAfrikaanse KoekoekCuculus gularis12.0092019-02-02   62018-01-17✔ 12.56
51344Cuckoo, BlackSwartkoekoekCuculus clamosus        ✔ 1.51
52340Cuckoo, CommonEuropese KoekoekCuculus canorus1.3312016-12-24   12017-01-09✔ 1.01
53352Cuckoo, DiderickDiederikkieChrysococcyx caprius37.33282019-02-19   182018-03-16✔ 24.62
54346Cuckoo, Great SpottedGevlekte KoekoekClamator glandarius12.0092019-01-1210.5322017-11-12102018-01-17✔ 2.51
55348Cuckoo, JacobinBontnuwejaarsvoelClamator jacobinus24.00182019-02-195.2612017-03-21112018-01-17✔ 27.14
56351Cuckoo, Klaas'sMeitjieChrysococcyx klaas20.00152019-02-0210.5322017-01-2292018-01-17✔ 9.05
57347Cuckoo, Levaillant'sGestreepte NuwejaarsvoelClamator levaillantii21.33162019-02-19   112018-03-16✔ 20.10
58343Cuckoo, Red-chestedPiet-my-vrouCuculus solitarius6.6752017-12-01   42017-12-07✔ 16.08
59513Cuckoo-shrike, BlackSwartkatakoeroeCampephaga flava30.67232019-02-02   162018-03-16✔ 9.05
6052Darter, AfricanSlanghalsvoelAnhinga rufa30.67232019-02-02   142018-08-14✔ 3.52
61315Dove, African MourningRooioogtortelduifStreptopelia decipiens        ✔ 5.53
62317Dove, LaughingRooiborsduifieStreptopelia senegalensis85.33642019-02-1910.5322017-03-21422018-08-14✔ 81.91
63318Dove, NamaquaNamakwaduifieOena capensis37.33282019-02-0210.5322017-12-11212018-05-14✔ 21.61
64314Dove, Red-eyedGrootringduifStreptopelia semitorquata29.33222019-01-12   172018-08-14✔ 42.71
65940Dove, RockTuinduifColumba livia        ✔ 1.01
66517Drongo, Fork-tailedMikstertbyvangerDicrurus adsimilis90.67682019-02-0221.0542017-11-12452018-08-14✔ 97.49
6795Duck, African BlackSwarteendAnas sparsa1.3312017-07-075.2612017-07-0722018-08-05✔ 7.54
68101Duck, FulvousFluiteendDendrocygna bicolor1.3312017-04-26   12017-05-02✘ 0.00
6991Duck, Knob-billedKnobbeleendSarkidiornis melanotos5.3342017-04-26   42017-05-02✔ 11.56
70100Duck, White-facedNonnetjie-eendDendrocygna viduata36.00272019-02-02   182018-08-14✔ 0.50
7196Duck, Yellow-billedGeelbekeendAnas undulata        ✔ 1.01
72143Eagle, African CrownedKroonarendStephanoaetus coronatus1.3312009-03-31     ✔ 0.50
73136Eagle, Lesser SpottedGevlekte ArendAquila pomarina4.0032019-01-125.2612015-02-1542018-06-22✔ 1.51
74138Eagle, Long-crestedLangkuifarendLophaetus occipitalis        ✔ 0.50
75142Eagle, MartialBreekoparendPolemaetus bellicosus33.33252018-11-1710.5322017-03-21192018-08-14✔ 40.70
76135Eagle, SteppeSteppe-arendAquila nipalensis1.3312019-02-02     ✔ 1.51
77134Eagle, TawnyRoofarendAquila rapax41.33312019-02-025.2612017-11-12222018-06-22✔ 37.19
78137Eagle, Wahlberg'sBruinarendAquila wahlbergi45.33342019-02-195.2612017-03-21222018-03-16✔ 41.71
79368Eagle-owl, SpottedGevlekte OoruilBubo africanus1.3312010-12-18     ✔ 7.54
80369Eagle-owl, Verreaux'sReuse-ooruilBubo lacteus24.00182019-02-0210.5322017-07-07122018-08-05✔ 13.57
8161Egret, CattleVeereierBubulcus ibis24.00182019-01-12   102018-03-16✔ 10.55
8258Egret, GreatGrootwitreierEgretta alba26.67202018-11-17   152018-08-14✔ 1.01
8359Egret, LittleKleinwitreierEgretta garzetta9.3372018-10-25   52018-06-22✔ 0.50
8460Egret, Yellow-billedGeelbekwitreierEgretta intermedia1.3312018-03-08   22018-03-16✔ 1.51
85600Eremomela, Yellow-belliedGeelpensbossangerEremomela icteropygialis8.0062018-09-21   52017-05-02✔ 8.04
86119Falcon, AmurOostelike RooipootvalkFalco amurensis18.67142019-01-12   122018-03-16✔ 2.01
87114Falcon, LannerEdelvalkFalco biarmicus5.3342018-03-08   42018-03-16✘ 0.00
88113Falcon, PeregrineSwerfvalkFalco peregrinus1.3312017-04-26   12017-05-02✘ 0.00
89854Finch, CuckooKoekoekvinkAnomalospiza imberbis        ✔ 0.50
90821Finch, Cut-throatBandkeelvinkAmadina fasciata12.0092019-02-02   52017-12-07✔ 4.02
91213Finfoot, AfricanWatertrapperPodica senegalensis        ✔ 0.50
92833Firefinch, AfricanKaapse VuurvinkieLagonosticta rubricata1.3312009-05-21     ✔ 25.13
93835Firefinch, Jameson'sJamesonse VuurvinkieLagonosticta rhodopareia20.00152019-02-195.2612017-07-07132018-08-14✔ 30.65
94837Firefinch, Red-billedRooibekvuurvinkieLagonosticta senegala13.33102019-01-125.2612017-03-2162018-08-14✔ 22.61
95149Fish-eagle, AfricanVisarendHaliaeetus vocifer66.67502019-02-025.2612017-12-11332018-08-14✔ 31.16
96655Flycatcher, African DuskyDonkervlieevangerMuscicapa adusta        ✔ 1.01
97656Flycatcher, AshyBlougrysvlieevangerMuscicapa caerulescens9.3372019-02-02   42018-08-14✔ 26.13
98665Flycatcher, FiscalFiskaalvlieivangerSigelus silens        ✔ 2.51
99661Flycatcher, MaricoMaricovlieevangerBradornis mariquensis        ✔ 1.51
100662Flycatcher, PaleMuiskleurvlieevangerBradornis pallidus5.3342018-11-17   32018-05-14✔ 11.56
101664Flycatcher, Southern BlackSwartvlieevangerMelaenornis pammelaina34.67262019-02-1915.7932017-03-21222018-08-14✔ 36.18
102654Flycatcher, SpottedEuropese VlieievangerMuscicapa striata37.33282019-02-1915.7932017-11-12202018-03-16✔ 18.59
103173Francolin, CoquiSwempiePeliperdix coqui        ✔ 2.01
104174Francolin, CrestedBospatrysDendroperdix sephaena81.33612019-02-1910.5322017-11-12402018-08-14✔ 98.49
105177Francolin, Shelley'sLaeveldpatrysScleroptila shelleyi        ✔ 0.50
106209Gallinule, Allen'sKleinkoningriethaanPorphyrio alleni1.3312016-01-27   12016-02-01✔ 0.50
107339Go-away-bird, GreyKw√™voelCorythaixoides concolor92.00692019-02-0210.5322017-01-22452018-08-14✔ 98.49
10889Goose, EgyptianKolgansAlopochen aegyptiacus80.00602019-02-0210.5322017-03-21382018-08-14✔ 37.69
10988Goose, Spur-wingedWildemakouPlectropterus gambensis4.0032018-11-17   22018-01-17✔ 2.01
110160Goshawk, AfricanAfrikaanse SperwerAccipiter tachiro        ✔ 1.51
111163Goshawk, Dark ChantingDonkersingvalkMelierax metabates34.67262019-02-02   182018-08-14✔ 31.66
112162Goshawk, GabarKleinsingvalkMelierax gabar16.00122017-04-14   82017-04-18✔ 19.60
1136Grebe, LittleKleindobbertjieTachybaptus ruficollis6.6752018-06-02   52018-06-22✔ 6.53
114323Green-pigeon, AfricanPapegaaiduifTreron calvus28.00212019-02-025.2612015-06-13152018-05-14✔ 43.72
115551Greenbul, SombreGewone WillieAndropadus importunus        ✔ 0.50
116263Greenshank, CommonGroenpootruiterTringa nebularia41.33312019-02-19   212018-05-14✔ 23.62
117430Ground-hornbill, SouthernBromvoelBucorvus leadbeateri20.00152019-01-0410.5322017-11-12102018-08-05✔ 23.62
118192Guineafowl, HelmetedGewone TarentaalNumida meleagris37.33282018-12-30   162018-08-14✔ 73.87
119288Gull, Grey-headedGryskopmeeuLarus cirrocephalus1.3312017-04-14   12017-04-18✔ 0.50
12072Hamerkop, HamerkopHamerkopScopus umbretta80.00602019-02-1921.0542017-12-11432018-08-14✔ 61.81
121171Harrier-Hawk, AfricanKaalwangvalkPolyboroides typus13.33102018-04-27   92018-05-14✔ 18.59
122127Hawk, African CuckooKoekoekvalkAviceda cuculoides1.3312015-07-04     ✘ 0.00
123131Hawk, BatVlermuisvalkMacheiramphus alcinus1.3312018-08-10     ✘ 0.00
124141Hawk-eagle, AfricanGrootjagarendAquila spilogaster30.67232018-09-215.2612017-03-21192018-06-22✔ 24.62
125728Helmet-shrike, Retz'sSwarthelmlaksmanPrionops retzii17.33132018-09-215.2612017-03-2172018-05-14✔ 39.20
126727Helmet-shrike, White-crestedWithelmlaksmanPrionops plumatus41.33312019-01-045.2612017-11-12202018-08-14✔ 89.95
12755Heron, Black-headedSwartkopreierArdea melanocephala5.3342017-09-18   22017-09-23✔ 5.03
12856Heron, GoliathReusereierArdea goliath5.3342019-01-12     ✔ 4.52
12963Heron, Green-backedGroenrugreierButorides striata66.67502019-02-0210.5322017-12-11342018-08-14✔ 8.04
13054Heron, GreyBloureierArdea cinerea61.33462019-02-02   302018-08-14✔ 54.27
13157Heron, PurpleRooireierArdea purpurea4.0032016-02-10   22016-02-15✔ 0.50
13262Heron, SquaccoRalreierArdeola ralloides12.0092018-10-25   62017-12-07✘ 0.00
133115Hobby, EurasianEuropese BoomvalkFalco subbuteo1.3312019-01-12     ✘ 0.00
134443Honeybird, Brown-backedSkerpbekheuningvoelProdotiscus regulus1.3312017-03-25   12017-03-31✘ 0.00
135440Honeyguide, GreaterGrootheuningwyserIndicator indicator5.3342019-01-12   12018-05-14✔ 17.59
136442Honeyguide, LesserKleinheuningwyserIndicator minor1.3312019-01-12     ✔ 2.51
137418Hoopoe, AfricanHoephoepUpupa africana53.33402019-02-1910.5322017-03-21282018-08-14✔ 69.85
138424Hornbill, African GreyGrysneushoringvoelTockus nasutus70.67532019-02-0210.5322017-03-21342018-08-05✔ 93.97
139427Hornbill, CrownedGekroonde NeushoringvoelTockus alboterminatus1.3312018-11-17     ✘ 0.00
1401185Hornbill, DamaraDamararooibekneushoringvoelTockus damarensis        ✔ 85.43
14110002Hornbill, Hybrid Damara/Red-billedTockus damarensis/erythrorhynchus        ✔ 85.43
1424129Hornbill, Red-billedRooibekneushoringvoelTockus erythrorhynchus84.00632019-02-1915.7932017-11-12412018-08-14✔ 85.43
143426Hornbill, Southern Yellow-billedGeelbekneushoringvoelTockus leucomelas82.67622019-02-1926.3252017-11-12422018-08-14✔ 100.00
144422Hornbill, TrumpeterGewone BoskraaiBycanistes bucinator        ✔ 4.02
145507House-martin, CommonHuisswaelDelichon urbicum14.67112019-02-025.2612016-12-0292018-01-17✔ 2.51
14681Ibis, African SacredSkoorsteenveerThreskiornis aethiopicus        ✔ 0.50
14783Ibis, GlossyGlansibisPlegadis falcinellus2.6722017-12-01   22017-12-07✘ 0.00
14884Ibis, HadedaHadedaBostrychia hagedash60.00452019-02-02   272018-08-14✔ 7.54
149849Indigobird, DuskyGewone BlouvinkieVidua funerea        ✔ 7.54
150850Indigobird, PurpleWitpootblouvinkieVidua purpurascens6.6752019-02-19   42018-03-16✔ 0.50
151851Indigobird, VillageStaalblouvinkieVidua chalybeata10.6782018-03-12   72018-03-16✔ 7.54
152228Jacana, AfricanGrootlangtoonActophilornis africanus48.00362019-02-02   232018-08-14✔ 1.01
153125Kestrel, LesserKleinrooivalkFalco naumanni1.3312016-03-18   12016-03-30✔ 0.50
154123Kestrel, RockKransvalkFalco rupicolus        ✔ 0.50
155402Kingfisher, Brown-hoodedBruinkopvisvangerHalcyon albiventris78.67592019-02-0210.5322017-11-12422018-08-14✔ 80.90
156395Kingfisher, GiantReusevisvangerMegaceryle maximus37.33282019-01-12   222018-08-14✔ 7.04
157401Kingfisher, Grey-headedGryskopvisvangerHalcyon leucocephala2.6722017-01-23   22017-02-05✔ 0.50
158397Kingfisher, MalachiteKuifkopvisvangerAlcedo cristata50.67382019-02-025.2612017-12-16282018-08-14✔ 6.53
159394Kingfisher, PiedBontvisvangerCeryle rudis73.33552019-02-19   362018-08-14✔ 17.59
160403Kingfisher, StripedGestreepte VisvangerHalcyon chelicuti16.00122019-02-02   92018-08-05✔ 15.58
161399Kingfisher, WoodlandBosveldvisvangerHalcyon senegalensis44.00332019-02-1910.5322017-03-21222018-03-16✔ 39.70
16214189Kite, BlackSwartwouMilvus migrans        ✔ 4.52
163128Kite, BlackSwartwouMilvus migrans1.3312018-12-30     ✘ 0.00
164130Kite, Black-shoulderedBlouvalkElanus caeruleus1.3312009-03-31     ✔ 3.02
165129Kite, Yellow-billedGeelbekwouMilvus aegyptius24.00182019-02-0210.5322017-12-11142018-01-17✔ 49.75
166224Korhaan, Red-crestedBoskorhaanLophotis ruficrista81.33612019-02-1921.0542017-11-12432018-08-14✔ 86.93
167247Lapwing, African WattledLelkiewietVanellus senegallus1.3312015-04-02     ✘ 0.00
168245Lapwing, BlacksmithBontkiewietVanellus armatus78.67592019-02-025.2612015-06-13402018-08-14✔ 21.61
169242Lapwing, CrownedKroonkiewietVanellus coronatus69.33522019-02-025.2612017-01-22352018-08-14✔ 83.92
170244Lapwing, SenegalKleinswartvlerkkiewietVanellus lugubris4.0032018-01-05   32018-01-17✔ 1.01
171246Lapwing, White-crownedWitkopkiewietVanellus albiceps1.3312018-10-25     ✔ 4.52
172464Lark, DuskyDonkerlewerikPinarocorys nigricans30.67232019-02-02   152018-03-16✔ 6.03
173468Lark, FlappetLaeveldklappertjieMirafra rufocinnamomea5.3342017-12-01   42017-12-07✘ 0.00
174457Lark, MonotonousBosveldlewerikMirafra passerina4.0032019-02-025.2612016-02-1122017-03-31✔ 1.51
175488Lark, Red-cappedRooikoplewerikCalandrella cinerea2.6722019-02-02     ✘ 0.00
176458Lark, Rufous-napedRooineklewerikMirafra africana14.67112018-09-21   92018-01-17✔ 1.51
177460Lark, SabotaSabotalewerikCalendulauda sabota80.00602019-02-1915.7932017-03-21432018-08-14✔ 33.67
178704Longclaw, Yellow-throatedGeelkeelkalkoentjieMacronyx croceus        ✔ 0.50
179823Mannikin, BronzeGewone FretSpermestes cucullatus5.3342018-04-27   42018-05-14✔ 0.50
180509Martin, Brown-throatedAfrikaanse OewerswaelRiparia paludicola1.3312016-11-09   12016-11-11✘ 0.00
181792Masked-weaver, LesserKleingeelvinkPloceus intermedius26.67202019-02-025.2612015-06-13152018-03-16✔ 14.57
182803Masked-weaver, SouthernSwartkeelgeelvinkPloceus velatus40.00302019-02-02   212018-08-14✔ 19.60
183210Moorhen, CommonGrootwaterhoenderGallinula chloropus   5.2612014-10-0612016-08-25✘ 0.00
184392Mousebird, Red-facedRooiwangmuisvoelUrocolius indicus44.00332019-02-195.2612017-03-21242018-08-05✔ 47.24
185390Mousebird, SpeckledGevlekte MuisvoelColius striatus1.3312014-03-10     ✔ 5.53
186637Neddicky, NeddickyNeddikkieCisticola fulvicapilla13.33102018-03-08   102018-03-16✔ 6.03
18769Night-Heron, Black-crownedGewone NagreierNycticorax nycticorax22.67172019-02-02   122018-08-14✔ 0.50
188371Nightjar, EuropeanEuropese NaguilCaprimulgus europaeus5.3342019-01-12   22017-02-23✔ 1.51
189373Nightjar, Fiery-neckedAfrikaanse NaguilCaprimulgus pectoralis32.00242019-02-1910.5322017-07-07202018-08-14✔ 43.72
190374Nightjar, FreckledDonkernaguilCaprimulgus tristigma        ✔ 2.01
191377Nightjar, Pennant-wingedWimpelvlerknaguilMacrodipteryx vexillarius        ✔ 0.50
192376Nightjar, Square-tailedLaeveldnaguilCaprimulgus fossii9.3372019-01-12   32018-03-16✔ 11.56
19374Openbill, AfricanOopbekooievaarAnastomus lamelligerus9.3372019-02-02   32016-03-30✘ 0.00
194521Oriole, Black-headedSwartkopwielewaalOriolus larvatus73.33552019-02-1915.7932017-11-12362018-08-14✔ 88.94
195519Oriole, Eurasian GoldenEuropese WielewaalOriolus oriolus14.67112019-02-02   82018-01-17✔ 14.07
196172Osprey, OspreyVisvalkPandion haliaetus1.3312009-03-31     ✔ 0.50
1971Ostrich, CommonVolstruis Struthio camelus        ✔ 1.51
198359Owl, BarnNonnetjie-uilTyto alba1.3312019-01-12     ✔ 0.50
199366Owlet, African BarredGebande UilGlaucidium capense25.33192018-08-105.2612017-07-07172018-08-14✔ 31.16
200365Owlet, Pearl-spottedWitkoluilGlaucidium perlatum66.67502019-02-1915.7932017-07-07332018-08-14✔ 65.83
201748Oxpecker, Red-billedRooibekrenostervoelBuphagus erythrorhynchus88.00662019-02-0215.7932017-11-12422018-08-14✔ 93.97
202747Oxpecker, Yellow-billedGeelbekrenostervoelBuphagus africanus24.00182018-04-275.2612017-03-21172018-08-05✘ 0.00
203230Painted-snipe, GreaterGoudsnipRostratula benghalensis5.3342019-02-02   32016-11-01✘ 0.00
204387Palm-swift, AfricanPalmwindswaelCypsiurus parvus9.3372018-10-25   52018-08-14✔ 1.01
205682Paradise-flycatcher, AfricanParadysvlieevangerTerpsiphone viridis60.00452019-02-1915.7932017-11-12332018-08-14✔ 44.22
206852Paradise-whydah, Long-tailedGewone ParadysvinkVidua paradisaea20.00152019-02-19   112018-05-14✔ 31.66
207328Parrot, Brown-headedBruinkoppapegaaiPoicephalus cryptoxanthus53.33402019-02-025.2612017-11-12292018-08-14✔ 47.74
208530Penduline-tit, GreyGryskapokvoelAnthoscopus caroli4.0032015-07-09   12015-07-15✔ 6.03
209788Petronia, Yellow-throatedGeelvlekmossiePetronia superciliaris26.67202019-02-0210.5322017-03-21172018-03-16✔ 2.01
210692Pipit, AfricanGewone KoesterAnthus cinnamomeus48.00362019-02-02   262018-08-14✔ 5.03
211695Pipit, BuffyVaalkoesterAnthus vaalensis17.33132019-02-02   82018-01-17✘ 0.00
212699Pipit, BushveldBosveldkoesterAnthus caffer1.3312017-07-07   12018-08-05✔ 3.52
213694Pipit, Plain-backedDonkerkoesterAnthus leucophrys1.3312017-01-19   12017-01-24✘ 0.00
214696Pipit, StripedGestreepte KoesterAnthus lineiventris1.3312015-07-09   12015-07-15✘ 0.00
215233Plover, Common RingedRingnekstrandkiewietCharadrius hiaticula1.3312018-09-21     ✘ 0.00
216237Plover, Kittlitz'sGeelborsstrandkiewietCharadrius pecuarius6.6752019-02-02   32018-08-14✘ 0.00
217238Plover, Three-bandedDriebandstrandkiewietCharadrius tricollaris76.00572019-02-1910.5322017-12-11392018-08-14✔ 45.73
218235Plover, White-frontedVaalstrandkiewietCharadrius marginatus2.6722019-02-02     ✘ 0.00
219281Pratincole, CollaredRooivlerksprinkaanvoelGlareola pratincola2.6722019-01-12   12017-01-24✘ 0.00
220649Prinia, Tawny-flankedBruinsylangstertjiePrinia subflava81.33612019-02-1910.5322017-03-31402018-08-14✔ 38.19
221712Puffback, Black-backedSneeubalDryoscopus cubla81.33612019-02-1921.0542017-11-12442018-08-14✔ 79.90
222398Pygmy-Kingfisher, AfricanDwergvisvangerIspidina picta2.6722016-12-24   22017-01-09✔ 6.53
223830Pytilia, Green-wingedGewone MelbaPytilia melba33.33252019-02-195.2612017-03-21182018-08-14✔ 37.19
224189Quail, CommonAfrikaanse KwartelCoturnix coturnix        ✔ 4.52
225805Quelea, Red-billedRooibekkweleaQuelea quelea50.67382019-02-1910.5322017-03-21262018-08-14✔ 38.19
226606Reed-warbler, AfricanKleinrietsangerAcrocephalus baeticatus1.3312018-09-21     ✔ 1.01
227579Robin-chat, Red-cappedNataljanfrederikCossypha natalensis2.6722018-10-25   12016-08-09✔ 2.01
228580Robin-chat, White-browedHeuglinse JanfrederikCossypha heuglini        ✔ 3.02
229582Robin-chat, White-throatedWitkeeljanfrederikCossypha humeralis33.33252018-11-1710.5322017-11-12182018-03-16✔ 27.14
230416Roller, Broad-billedGeelbektroupantEurystomus glaucurus        ✔ 0.50
231412Roller, EuropeanEuropese TroupantCoracias garrulus33.33252019-02-1915.7932017-03-21182018-03-16✔ 32.66
232413Roller, Lilac-breastedGewone TroupantCoracias caudatus88.00662019-02-1915.7932017-11-12452018-08-14✔ 98.49
233415Roller, PurpleGroottroupantCoracias naevius13.33102019-02-025.2612016-12-0282018-08-05✔ 14.07
234256Ruff, RuffKemphaanPhilomachus pugnax25.33192019-02-02   132018-03-16✔ 0.50
235609Rush-warbler, LittleKaapse VleisangerBradypterus baboecala        ✔ 0.50
236310Sandgrouse, Double-bandedDubbelbandsandpatrysPterocles bicinctus50.67382018-10-255.2612017-03-21272018-08-14✔ 47.74
237258Sandpiper, CommonGewone RuiterActitis hypoleucos42.67322019-02-02   232018-08-14✔ 22.61
238251Sandpiper, CurlewKrombekstrandloperCalidris ferruginea22.67172019-02-02   122017-12-07✔ 1.01
239262Sandpiper, MarshMoerasruiterTringa stagnatilis10.6782018-03-08   72018-03-16✔ 3.02
240264Sandpiper, WoodBosruiterTringa glareola52.00392019-02-195.2612017-03-21282018-08-14✔ 22.61
241421Scimitarbill, CommonSwartbekkakelaarRhinopomastus cyanomelas57.33432019-01-12   342018-08-14✔ 54.77
242363Scops-owl, AfricanSkopsuilOtus senegalensis49.33372019-02-19   252018-08-14✔ 47.24
243364Scops-owl, Southern White-facedWitwanguilPtilopsis granti2.6722018-08-10   22018-08-14✔ 11.56
244585Scrub-robin, BeardedBaardwipstertCercotrichas quadrivirgata13.33102018-08-10   82018-08-14✔ 0.50
245588Scrub-robin, White-browedGestreepte WipstertCercotrichas leucophrys88.00662019-02-1910.5322017-03-21432018-08-14✔ 48.24
246105Secretarybird, SecretarybirdSekretarisvoelSagittarius serpentarius        ✔ 3.52
247867Seedeater, Streaky-headedStreepkopkanarieCrithagra gularis        ✔ 2.51
248161Shikra, ShikraGebande SperwerAccipiter badius6.6752019-02-02   22017-03-31✔ 15.58
249706Shrike, Lesser GreyGryslaksmanLanius minor21.33162019-02-025.2612017-03-21122018-03-16✔ 5.03
250724Shrike, MagpieLangstertlaksmanUrolestes melanoleucus80.00602019-02-025.2612017-03-21372018-08-14✔ 93.97
251708Shrike, Red-backedRooiruglaksmanLanius collurio40.00302019-02-1910.5322017-03-21192018-03-16✔ 37.69
252730Shrike, Southern White-crownedKremetartlaksmanEurocephalus anguitimens62.67472019-02-1910.5322017-11-12312018-08-14✔ 80.90
253146Snake-eagle, Black-chestedSwartborsslangarendCircaetus pectoralis16.00122019-02-02   102018-05-14✔ 25.63
254145Snake-eagle, BrownBruinslangarendCircaetus cinereus32.00242019-02-1910.5322017-11-12202018-08-14✔ 32.16
255786Sparrow, CapeGewone MossiePasser melanurus2.6722017-12-01   22017-12-07✘ 0.00
256784Sparrow, HouseHuismossiePasser domesticus2.6722015-03-16     ✔ 15.08
2573852Sparrow, Northern Grey-headedWitkeelmossiePasser griseus        ✔ 69.35
2584142Sparrow, Southern Grey-headedGryskopmossiePasser diffusus76.00572019-02-0215.7932017-03-21412018-08-14✔ 69.35
259159Sparrowhawk, BlackSwartsperwerAccipiter melanoleucus        ✔ 2.51
260158Sparrowhawk, LittleKleinsperwerAccipiter minullus1.3312018-08-10   12018-08-14✔ 17.09
261484Sparrowlark, Chestnut-backedRooiruglewerikEremopterix leucotis10.6782019-02-025.2612017-03-2162018-05-14✔ 1.51
26285Spoonbill, AfricanLepelaarPlatalea alba46.67352019-02-02   242018-08-14✘ 0.00
263183Spurfowl, NatalNatalse FisantPternistis natalensis82.67622019-02-1910.5322017-03-31392018-08-14✔ 88.44
264185Spurfowl, Swainson'sBosveldfisantPternistis swainsonii80.00602019-02-1910.5322017-03-31382018-08-14✔ 85.93
265740Starling, Black-belliedSwartpensglansspreeuLamprotornis corruscus        ✔ 0.50
266743Starling, Burchell'sGrootglansspreeuLamprotornis australis76.00572019-02-1915.7932017-03-21412018-08-14✔ 60.80
267737Starling, Cape GlossyKleinglansspreeuLamprotornis nitens70.67532019-02-0215.7932017-11-12392018-08-14✔ 91.96
268738Starling, Greater Blue-earedGroot-blouoorglansspreeuLamprotornis chalybaeus34.67262019-02-02   162018-06-22✔ 19.10
269745Starling, Red-wingedRooivlerkspreeuOnychognathus morio5.3342019-02-02   12018-06-22✔ 1.51
270736Starling, Violet-backedWitborsspreeuCinnyricinclus leucogaster40.00302019-02-1910.5322017-11-12212018-03-16✔ 33.67
271735Starling, WattledLelspreeuCreatophora cinerea30.67232019-01-125.2612017-11-12182018-03-16✔ 11.06
272270Stilt, Black-wingedRooipootelsieHimantopus himantopus33.33252019-02-02   172018-08-14✔ 4.02
273253Stint, LittleKleinstrandloperCalidris minuta12.0092019-02-02   72018-03-16✔ 1.01
274576Stonechat, AfricanGewone BontrokkieSaxicola torquatus2.6722015-08-30   12015-09-03✔ 0.50
27579Stork, BlackGrootswartooievaarCiconia nigra8.0062019-02-02   22017-05-02✔ 4.52
27673Stork, MarabouMaraboeLeptoptilos crumeniferus14.67112017-04-14   82017-04-18✔ 24.12
27775Stork, Saddle-billedSaalbekooievaarEphippiorhynchus senegalensis34.67262019-02-02   152018-06-22✔ 17.09
27880Stork, WhiteWitooievaarCiconia ciconia1.3312018-01-05   12018-01-17✔ 4.02
27977Stork, Woolly-neckedWolnekooievaarCiconia episcopus22.67172019-02-02   142018-08-14✔ 1.51
28076Stork, Yellow-billedNimmersatMycteria ibis22.67172019-02-02   132018-08-14✔ 6.03
281772Sunbird, AmethystSwartsuikerbekkieChalcomitra amethystina1.3312009-03-31     ✔ 1.51
282771Sunbird, CollaredKortbeksuikerbekkieHedydipna collaris6.6752018-01-05   42018-01-17✔ 3.52
283755Sunbird, MaricoMaricosuikerbekkieCinnyris mariquensis69.33522019-02-0210.5322017-11-12372018-08-14✔ 27.64
284774Sunbird, Scarlet-chestedRooiborssuikerbekkieChalcomitra senegalensis        ✔ 1.51
285763Sunbird, White-belliedWitpenssuikerbekkieCinnyris talatala64.00482019-01-125.2612017-11-12362018-08-14✔ 74.37
286493Swallow, BarnEuropese SwaelHirundo rustica50.67382019-02-1910.5322017-03-21232018-03-16✔ 38.69
287502Swallow, Greater StripedGrootstreepswaelHirundo cucullata2.6722016-12-24   22017-01-09✘ 0.00
288499Swallow, Grey-rumpedGryskruisswaelPseudhirundo griseopyga        ✔ 0.50
289503Swallow, Lesser StripedKleinstreepswaelHirundo abyssinica46.67352019-02-19   272018-08-14✔ 47.24
290500Swallow, MosqueMoskeeswaelHirundo senegalensis2.6722018-11-17     ✔ 0.50
291501Swallow, Red-breastedRooiborsswaelHirundo semirufa37.33282019-02-025.2612017-11-12222018-08-14✔ 16.58
292496Swallow, Wire-tailedDraadstertswaelHirundo smithii54.67412019-02-02   292018-08-14✔ 8.54
293380Swift, African BlackSwartwindswaelApus barbatus10.6782018-08-10   92018-08-14✔ 1.51
294386Swift, AlpineWitpenswindswaelTachymarptis melba21.33162019-01-12   122018-08-05✔ 18.59
295378Swift, CommonEuropese WindswaelApus apus1.3312019-01-12     ✘ 0.00
296384Swift, HorusHoruswindswaelApus horus        ✔ 1.51
297385Swift, LittleKleinwindswaelApus affinis65.33492019-02-1915.7932017-03-21362018-08-14✔ 21.61
298383Swift, White-rumpedWitkruiswindswaelApus caffer17.33132019-02-025.2612016-12-02102018-03-16✔ 4.02
299715Tchagra, Black-crownedSwartkroontjagraTchagra senegalus66.67502019-02-1910.5322017-11-12372018-08-14✔ 51.26
300714Tchagra, Brown-crownedRooivlerktjagraTchagra australis73.33552019-02-1921.0542017-11-12422018-08-14✔ 61.81
301305Tern, WhiskeredWitbaardsterretjieChlidonias hybrida5.3342018-03-08   32018-03-16✘ 0.00
302304Tern, White-wingedWitvlerksterretjieChlidonias leucopterus        ✔ 1.01
303275Thick-knee, SpottedGewone DikkopBurhinus capensis5.3342017-07-075.2612017-07-0722018-08-05✔ 17.09
304274Thick-knee, WaterWaterdikkopBurhinus vermiculatus69.33522019-02-02   332018-08-14✔ 17.09
305557Thrush, GroundscraperGevlekte LysterPsophocichla litsipsirupa44.00332019-02-025.2612015-06-13202018-08-14✔ 60.80
306552Thrush, KurrichaneRooibeklysterTurdus libonyanus12.0092018-09-215.2612017-12-1682017-12-18✔ 57.79
307437Tinkerbird, Yellow-frontedGeelblestinkerPogoniulus chrysoconus        ✔ 1.01
308527Tit, Southern BlackGewone SwartmeesParus niger72.00542019-02-1915.7932017-11-12382018-08-14✔ 81.41
309657Tit-flycatcher, GreyWaaierstertvlieevangerMyioparus plumbeus62.67472019-02-1910.5322017-03-21322018-08-05✔ 11.56
310393Trogon, NarinaBosloerieApaloderma narina        ✔ 3.02
311337Turaco, Purple-crestedBloukuifloerieGallirex porphyreolophus        ✔ 1.01
312316Turtle-dove, CapeGewone TortelduifStreptopelia capicola94.67712019-02-1921.0542017-11-12462018-08-14✔ 97.99
313106Vulture, CapeKransaasvoelGyps coprotheres10.6782018-10-25   42017-05-02✔ 22.61
314110Vulture, HoodedMonnikaasvoelNecrosyrtes monachus21.33162019-02-025.2612017-12-16152018-08-05✔ 14.57
315108Vulture, Lappet-facedSwartaasvoelTorgos tracheliotus10.6782018-08-10   72018-08-14✔ 35.68
316107Vulture, White-backedWitrugaasvoelGyps africanus56.00422019-02-0210.5322019-02-17302018-08-14✔ 63.82
317109Vulture, White-headedWitkopaasvoelTrigonoceps occipitalis12.0092019-02-02   72018-05-14✔ 18.59
318685Wagtail, African PiedBontkwikkieMotacilla aguimp76.00572019-02-0210.5322017-12-11402018-08-14✔ 7.04
319686Wagtail, CapeGewone KwikkieMotacilla capensis1.3312015-04-28     ✔ 1.01
320596Warbler, IcterineSpotsangerHippolais icterina4.0032019-02-02   12018-01-17✔ 0.50
321597Warbler, Olive-treeOlyfboomsangerHippolais olivetorum1.3312016-01-27   12016-02-01✘ 0.00
322599Warbler, WillowHofsangerPhylloscopus trochilus22.67172019-02-02   162018-03-16✔ 8.54
323839Waxbill, BlueGewone BlousysieUraeginthus angolensis77.33582019-02-1910.5322017-03-21402018-08-14✔ 92.96
324843Waxbill, CommonRooibeksysieEstrilda astrild10.6782019-02-02   42018-08-14✔ 9.55
325838Waxbill, Orange-breastedRooiassieAmandava subflava        ✔ 1.01
326840Waxbill, Violet-earedKoningblousysieGranatina granatina1.3312017-01-035.2612014-12-2222017-01-09✔ 4.52
327793Weaver, Red-headedRooikopwewerAnaplectes rubriceps41.33312019-02-195.2612017-03-21202018-08-14✔ 42.71
328791Weaver, SpectacledBrilwewerPloceus ocularis21.33162019-02-02   132018-08-14✔ 15.08
329804Weaver, Thick-billedDikbekwewerAmblyospiza albifrons        ✔ 1.51
330797Weaver, VillageBontrugwewerPloceus cucullatus2.6722019-01-04     ✔ 25.63
331568Wheatear, CappedHoeveldskaapwagterOenanthe pileata2.6722017-01-19   12017-01-24✔ 0.50
3321172White-eye, CapeKaapse GlasogieZosterops virens        ✔ 5.03
3331171White-eye, Orange RiverGariepglasogieZosterops pallidus        ✔ 5.03
334846Whydah, Pin-tailedKoningrooibekkieVidua macroura1.3312018-03-12   12018-03-16✔ 8.04
335847Whydah, Shaft-tailedPylstertrooibekkieVidua regia4.0032016-03-18   32016-03-30✔ 0.50
336814Widowbird, White-wingedWitvlerkflapEuplectes albonotatus4.0032019-02-02   22018-08-14✔ 3.52
337321Wood-dove, Emerald-spottedGroenvlekduifieTurtur chalcospilos92.00692019-02-1921.0542017-11-12482018-08-14✔ 96.48
338419Wood-hoopoe, GreenRooibekkakelaar Phoeniculus purpureus69.33522019-02-1910.5322017-11-12322018-08-14✔ 85.93
339451Woodpecker, BeardedBaardspegDendropicos namaquus34.67262019-02-02   172018-08-14✔ 48.24
340446Woodpecker, Bennett'sBennettse SpegCampethera bennettii1.3312017-07-075.2612017-07-0722018-08-05✔ 2.01
341450Woodpecker, CardinalKardinaalspegDendropicos fuscescens48.00362019-02-025.2612017-11-12282018-08-14✔ 39.70
342447Woodpecker, Golden-tailedGoudstertspegCampethera abingoni52.00392019-02-02   272018-08-14✔ 36.18
343615Wren-warbler, Stierling'sStierlingse SangerCalamonastes stierlingi50.67382019-02-195.2612017-11-12282018-06-22✔ 17.59
Page served: 22 Feb 2019
design and systems by Michael Brooks
Animal Demography Unit
University of Cape Town